1 edition of Minerals of the montmorillonite group: their origin and relation to soil and clays. found in the catalog.
Minerals of the montmorillonite group: their origin and relation to soil and clays.
|The Physical Object|
|Number of Pages||79|
Montmorillonite belongs to the Smectite group of clays. There are two types of montmorillonite, sodium and calcium. Sodium montmorillonite is commonly known as Bentonite; the name is derived from the location sodium montmorillonite of the first commercial deposit mined at Fort Benton, Wyoming USA. Bentonite principally consists of sodium montmorillonite in combination with 10 to 20% of various mineral . Clay minerals play a significant role in many aspects of life, ranging from their domination of the properties of the soils and sediments beneath us to their ubiquitous commercial use in many products and industries (Newman, ; Odom, ; Jepson, , ).
weight of (day is the montmorillonite family. The high degree of their base exchange capacity and the rapidity of their reactions have long been recognized as outstand ing attributes of this class of clay minerals. Minerals of this group are plate shaped, three-layer lattice minerals with a very high degree of isomorphous substitution. To a geologist, clay minerals are fine particles (minerals belong to the family of phyllosilicate (or sheet silicate) of minerals, which shows properties of plasticity, shrinkage, and hardening upon drying or firing.
Preparation of soil minerals and soils. Montmorillonite (SWy-2) and kaolinite (KGa-1b) clays, obtained from the Clay Minerals Society Source Clays Repository (West Lafayette, Indiana, United States), were size-fractionated by wet sedimentation to obtain particles with d h = –2 μm and saturated with sodium. Clay Minerals presence of weakly bound cations, water, or polar organic molecules in the interlayer region. Smectites generally refer to a group of expandable dioctahedral minerals with a charge of per formula unit. Montmorillonite, the most common member of this group, derives its charge from the octahedral substitution of Mg2.
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MINERALS OF THE MONTMORILLONITE GROUP. THEIR ORIGIN AND RELATION TO SOILS AND CLAYS. By CLARENCE S. Ross, Geological Survey, United States Department of the Interior, and STERLING B.
HEN- DRICKS, Bureau of Plant Industry, Soils, and Agricultural Engineering, United States Department of by: Minerals of the montmorillonite group.
Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., (OCoLC) Online version: Ross, Clarence S. (Clarence Samuel), Minerals of the Montmorillonite group, their origin and relation to soils and clays (OCoLC) Material Type: Government publication, National government publication: Document Type: Book.
Minerals of the Montmorillonite group, their origin and relation to soils and clays (OCoLC) Material Type: Document, Government publication, National government publication, Internet resource: Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File: All Authors / Contributors: Clarence S Ross; Sterling B Hendricks; Geological Survey (U.S.).
Montmorillonite is the most abundant clay mineral, and illite, chlorite, kaolinite and mixed-layer minerals are present in almost every sample.
Alteration of the clay minerals is influenced by (a) change of environment, and (b) length of exposure. The origin and formation of soil clay minerals, namely micas, vermiculites, smectites, chlorites and interlayered minerals, interstratified minerals and kaolin minerals, are broadly reviewed in the context of research over the past half by: The origin and formation of soil clay minerals, namely micas, vermiculites, smectites, chlorites and interlayered minerals, interstratified minerals and kaolin minerals, are broadly reviewed in the context of research over the past half century.
X-ray analyses of samples from thirteen soil profiles that were formed on glacial till, loess, and Mississippian limestones of Indiana indicate that (1) in some soil profiles chlorite of the parent material is changed completely to montmorillonite with intermediate stages of random mixed layers of chlorite-vermiculite-montmorillonite; (2) some of the illite of the parent material produces montmorillonite through random mixed layering of illite-montmorillonite.
The smectite group includes some of the most important clay minerals in soils and sediments. The smectites include all minerals formerly classified in the montmorillonite group of expansible layer. IN WATERS OF VARYING QUALITY, AND THEIR CONTROL WITH PHOSPHATE DISPERSE NTS By B.
ROLFE, R. MILLER, and I. McQuEEN ABSTRACT This study is concerned with the dispersion characteristics of montmorillonite, kaolinite, and illite clay minerals in waters of different hardness and the relation of these characteristics to the. mineral masses.
This is probably the extreme of high-temperature, hypogene clay-mineral formation. Between this and the low temperature limit the transition is grad ual, the minerals formed falling into gradational groups.
In time clay aggregates of hydrothermal origin become distinguishable with difficulty from clay aggregates. 11 Origin of Clay Minerals “The contact of rocks and water produces clays, either at or near the surface of the earth” (from Velde, ).
Rock +Water → Clay For example, The CO2 gas can dissolve in water and form carbonic acid, which will become hydrogen ions H+ and bicarbonate ions, and make water slightly acidic. Clays composed of a mixture of clay minerals, in which illite is most abundant, are used in the manufacture of brick, tile, stoneware, and glazed products.
In addition to its use in the ceramic industry, kaolinite is utilized as an extender in aqueous-based paints and as a filler in natural and synthetic polymers. Clays in soils often differ from pure clay minerals of geological origin. They provide a template for most of the reactive organic matter in soils.
They directly affect plant nutrients, soil temperature and pH, aggregate sizes and strength, porosity and water-holding capacities. According to their mineralogical composition, there are three main groups of clays: kaolinite, montmorillonite and illite as well as around 30 different types of pure clays within these categories.
A study of excellent material from four regions, and a restudy of old specimens has shown that the zinc clays are distinct minerals belonging to the montmo/ illonite group, and are analogous to the magnesian clay mineral, saponite. The study presents seven new chemical analyses, and the chemical formulas calculated from them.
Montmorillonite is a very soft phyllosilicate group of minerals that form when they precipitate from water solution as microscopic crystals, known as clay. It is named after Montmorillon in France. Montmorillonite, a member of the smectite group, is a clay, meaning that it has two tetrahedral sheets of silica sandwiching a central octahedral sheet of alumina.
Clays form flat hexagonal sheets similar to the minerals are common weathering products (including weathering of feldspar) and low-temperature hydrothermal alteration products. Clay minerals are very common in soils, in fine-grained sedimentary rocks such as shale, mudstone, and siltstone and in fine-grained metamorphic slate and phyllite.
Clay minerals are usually (but not. Prior to circathe smectite group was called the montmorillonite-saponite group. Smectite minerals have large specific surface areas (10 - m2/g) and exhibit a high expansion (swelling) capability in the presence of H2O. Smectite and vermiculite minerals are often referred to as "swelling" or "expandable" clay minerals.
Ross, C.S., Hendricks, S.B. () Minerals of the Montmorillonite Group: Their Origin and Relation to Soils and Clays. United States Geological Survey, Professional paper B: 79 pgs.
MacEwan, D.M.C. () Identification of the Montmorillonite Group of Minerals by X-Rays. The structural changes along the c axis, of the Ba-exchanged montmorillonite (SwyBa), under variable relative humidity (% RH), is investigated.
In this regard, the arrangement, amount and position of both exchangeable cation and the water molecules in the interlamellar space (IS), are evaluated. This aim is achieved using the X-ray diffraction (XRD) profile modeling approach that consists.
Structure and composition of the clay minerals and their physical and chemical properties. In: Developments in Clay Science. Volume 2. Applied Clay Mineralogy: Occurrences, Processing and Applications of Kaolins, Bentonites, Palygorskitesepiolite, and Common Clays.
Amsterdam: Elsevier.Montmorillonite, any of a group of clay minerals and their chemical varieties that swell in water and possess high cation-exchange theoretical formula for montmorillonite (i.e., without structural substitutions) is (OH) 4 Si 8 Al 4 O 20 nH 2 O.
The montmorillonite minerals are products of volcanism and hydrothermal activity and are composed of hydrous aluminum silicates in the.Since X-ray diffraction patterns are directly related to crystal structures. X-ray identification is, in principal, better suited to the recognition of structural groups and structural varieties than of chemical species.
Well-formed kaolin, mica, and chlorite structures give rise to characteristic 7, 10 and 14Å spacings which are relatively easily identified.